Although recommendations vary, most experts advise increasing elevation no more than 1,000 to 1,200 feet (about 300 to 360 meters) a day once you reach 8,200 feet (about 2,500 meters). Conde MV, et al. Pulmonary edema signs and symptoms may appear suddenly or develop over time. The outlook improves if you get treated quickly. Advantages and Risks of Mesotherapy Treatments, Isolation of Aerobic Enteric Bacteria Ankylosing Spondylitis, Problems Happens During an Allergic Reaction, Jarosewichite: Properties and Occurrences, Crohn’s Disease (Causes, Risk factors, and Complications). This content does not have an Arabic version. http://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-procedures-and-tests/pulse-oximetry.html. This creates a backup of pressure in the small blood vessels of the lungs, which causes the vessels to leak fluid. But sometimes, the alveoli fill with fluid instead of air, preventing oxygen from being absorbed into your bloodstream. Children who have existing pulmonary hypertension and structural heart defects may be more likely to get HAPE. Treatment for pulmonary edema varies depending on the cause but generally includes supplemental oxygen and medications. 2019; doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.02.028. Some complications associated with chronic edema are stiffness and pain in the legs, difficulty in walking, ulceration of skin, dermal stretching, loss of skin elasticity, itching and cracks on the region affected with edema, formation of scars in the deeper layer and frequent skin infections. In most cases, heart problems cause pulmonary edema. It can develop suddenly or gradually, and it is often caused by congestive heart failure. Leukemic involvement 1. Circulation. Peri-engraftment respiratory distress syndrome 1. The typical presentation includes persistent hypoxia despite attempts to reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression and radiograph­ic findings of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. One of the most serious complications of a PE is a pulmonary infarction — the death of lung tissue. High altitude disorders. The upper chambers, the right and left atria, receive incoming blood. The increased pressure pushes fluid through the blood vessel walls into the air sacs. In most cases, heart problems cause pulmonary edema. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. Two less common, and poorly understood, complications are pulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). 6th ed. The initial management of pulmonary edema, irrespective of the type or cause, is supporting vital functions. The right ventricle has a much thinner wall of muscle than does the left side of our heart because it is under less pressure to pump blood into the lungs. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. What is ARDS? Remarkably, the pathogenesis of this complication remains elusive, despite over 100 years For example, you can reduce your risk of many kinds of heart problems by taking steps to control your cholesterol and blood pressure. This fluid collects in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. Pulmonary edema. Your lungs contain many small, elastic air sacs called alveoli. Pulmonary edema. Over a 12-month period, there were 51 admissions for sickle cell pain crisis. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Pulmonary edema is a condition in which the lungs fill with fluid. The oxygen-rich blood then returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins, flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle and finally leaves your heart through the largest blood vessel in the body, called the aorta. Pulmonary edema leading to respiratory failure has been a recognized complication of kidney failure since 1901. Acute pulmonary oedema in pregnant women is an uncommon but life-threatening event. Pulmonary edema may be life-threatening if your body is not able to get the oxygen it needs. Wemple M, et al. Overview of the management of postoperative pulmonary complications. High altitude pulmonary edema in children: A single referral center evaluation. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Ferri FF. Drug toxicity 5. When the alveoli are flooded, two problems occur: Besides direct injury to the lungs, as in ARDS, other causes include: People with heart problems or heart failure are the most at risk for pulmonary edema. If pulmonary edema continues, it can raise pressure in the pulmonary artery (pulmonary hypertension), and eventually the right ventricle in your heart becomes weak and begins to fail. This can include swelling of the ankles or legs, swelling of your stomach, heart swelling, and buildup of fluid in your lung membranes. Olson EJ (expert opinion). Complications depend on the underlying cause. Pulmonary complications resulting from cocaine abuse depend on the method of administration (oral Call 911 or emergency medical help if you have any of the following acute signs and symptoms: Don't attempt to drive yourself to the hospital. McGraw Hill; 2020. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Restrictive l… To prevent HAPE, start taking the medication at least one day before ascent. Causes 1. Eventually, the heart becomes weak and begins to fail, and pressures in the heart and lungs go up. Saunders Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. There are two main kinds of pulmonary edema: cardiogenic and noncardiogenic. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2021. Pulmonary edema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis may be the result of increased permeability of pulmonary capillary membranes and altered intravascular colloid-hydrostatic forces. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. Pulse oximetry. Pulmonary edema is grouped into two categories, depending on where the problem started. There are many complications of pulmonary edema. Traditional definitions of postoperative pulmonary complications include atelectasis, bronchospasm, pneumonia, and exacerbation of chronic lung disease. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. The right ventricle has a much thinner wall of muscle than does the left side of your heart because it is under less pressure to pump blood into the lungs. Mayo Clinic; 2019. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. What is the heart? All rights reserved. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Signs and symptoms are similar to those that occur with acute pulmonary edema and can include: Signs and symptoms of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) tend to get worse at night. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Complication in the management of sickle cell pain crisis. Oxygen is taken in, and carbon dioxide is expelled. Pulmonary edema that is not caused by increased pressures in your heart is called noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. https://health.gov/our-work/food-nutrition/2015-2020-dietary-guidelines/guidelines. Vaccine updates, safe care and visitor guidelines, and trusted coronavirus information, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter. Yancy CW, et al. Normally, this exchange of gases occurs without problems. In some instances, it may be fatal even if people receive treatment. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/heart-failure/pulmonary-edema. 20th ed. NS There are several major pulmonary complications of cirrhosis that clinicians need to be aware of. Mayo Clinic. In general, if pulmonary edema continues, the pressure in the pulmonary artery can go up (pulmonary hypertension). Pulmonary edema fluid analyses and hemodynamic evaluations were performed in two uremic patients with acute pulmonary edema. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. Neurogenic pulmonary edema. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Pulmonary edema that comes on suddenly (acute pulmonary edema) is life-threatening. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. According to Peter et al, 4 patients with a form of acute pulmonary edema with cardiogenic origins have benefited from the use of CPAP, especially with early application. Pneumonia requires immediate treatment to prevent complications, which may require antibiotics and oxygen therapy. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure. Merck Manual Professional Version. It generally includes providing additional oxygen and medications to treat the underlying conditions. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Leukemic infiltration 3. Levitzky MG. The lower chambers, the more muscular right and left ventricles, pump blood out of your heart. Accessed Sept. 14, 2020. What is coronary heart disease? Difficulty breathing (dyspnea) or extreme shortness of breath that worsens with activity or when lying down, A feeling of suffocating or drowning that worsens when lying down, A cough that produces frothy sputum that may be tinged with blood, Anxiety, restlessness or a sense of apprehension, A rapid, irregular heartbeat (palpitations), Difficulty breathing with activity or when lying flat, Awakening at night with a cough or breathless feeling that may be relieved by sitting up, More shortness of breath than normal when you're physically active, Shortness of breath with activity, which worsens to shortness of breath at rest, Decreased ability to exercise as you once could, Later, a cough that produces frothy, pink sputum, Shortness of breath, especially if it comes on suddenly, Trouble breathing or a feeling of suffocating (dyspnea), A bubbly, wheezing or gasping sound when you breathe, Breathing difficulty along with a lot of sweating, A significant drop in blood pressure resulting in lightheadedness, dizziness, weakness or sweating, A sudden worsening of any of pulmonary edema symptoms. Other factors that may put a person at risk include: Causes of pulmonary edema that are not due to poor heart function are called noncardiogenic; they are typically caused by ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome). Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema (NCPE) is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication associated with opioid overdoses that must be recognized and managed promptly. The upper chambers (the right and left atria) receive incoming blood and pump it into the lower chambers (right and left ventricles). Transfusion-related acute lung injury Non-infectious complications after HSCT—Early (before day 100) 1. Follow these tips to keep your heart healthy: To prevent HAPE, gradually ascend to high elevations. This content does not have an English version. Various acute pulmonary complications may occur in patients with hematologic malignancies because they are in an immunocompro- mised state due to systemic disease or to chemotherapy or hema- topoietic stem cell transplantation. 9th ed. But fluid can accumulate due to other reasons, including pneumonia, exposure to certain toxins and drugs, and sports or live at high altitude. But fluid can accumulate for other reasons, including pneumonia, exposure to certain toxins and medications, trauma to the chest wall, and visiting or exercising at high elevations. It's usually a result of heart failure. This causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels to the lung tissues and eventually into the air sacs. See also the symptoms of Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary edema: Introduction. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/how-heart-works. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) 4. © 1998-2020 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Sometimes, pulmonary edema can be caused by both a heart problem and a non-heart problem. μα (oídēma, “swelling”), from οἰδέω (oidéō, “I swell”). The signs and symptoms you have depends on the type of pulmonary edema. Make a donation. Cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Medical conditions that can cause heart failure and lead to pulmonary edema include: In normal lungs, air sacs (alveoli) take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. HAPE can occur in adults and children who travel to or exercise at high altitudes. Tintinalli JE, et al. In: Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. However, edema complications can quickly develop. Sudden onset (acute) pulmonary edema is a medical emergency. You may be able to prevent pulmonary edema by managing existing heart or lung conditions and following a healthy lifestyle. McGraw Hill; 2018. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. From the aorta, the blood travels to the rest of your body. Continued Pulmonary Edema Causes. The most common such problem is hepatic hydrothorax, the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space related to portal hypertension. If pulmonary edema continues, it can raise pressure in the pulmonary artery (pulmonary hypertension), and eventually the right ventricle in your heart becomes weak and begins to fail. Answer. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Mason RJ, et al. Source: Diseases Database. Jameson JL, et al., eds. Pulmonary edema occurs when fluid collects in air sacs of the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. Causes and Risk factors of Pulmonary edema: The most common cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure (CHF). Because pulmonary edema requires prompt treatment, you'll initially be diagnosed on the basis of your symptoms and a physical exam, electrocardiogram and chest X-ray.Once your condition is more stable, your doctor will ask about your medical history, especially whether you have ever had cardiovascular or lung disease.Tests that may be done to diagnose pulmonary edema or to determine why you developed fluid in your lungs include: 1. Another cause of pulmonary edema are mitral and aortic heart valve conditions. organ failure that causes fluid accumulation – congestive heart failure, kidney failure, or liver cirrhosis, brain injuries such as brain bleeding, stroke, head injury, brain surgery, tumor, or seizure, history of lung diseases, such as tuberculosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), Buildup of fluid in the membranes that surround our lungs (pleural effusion). Pulmonary edema as a symptom: The heart valves, which keep blood flowing in the right direction, are gates at the chamber openings (for the tricuspid and mitral valves) and exits (for the pulmonary and aortic valves). Pinto DS, et al. Therefore, if the level of consciousness is decreased it may be required to proceed to tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation to prevent airway compromise. In high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), it's theorized that vessels in the lungs constrict, causing increased pressure. Pulmonary edema is the most severe form of toxic lesions of the respiratory tract: Mild intoxication develop acute laryngotracheitis, moderate - bronchitis, bronchitis, severe - toxic pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. In valvular insufficiency or regurgitation, blood leaks in the wrong direction. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The causes of pulmonary edema vary. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. This may make it hard for you to breathe. Systematic review of negative pressure pulmonary edema in otolaryngology procedures. Blood flow to the lung. The high incidence of pulmonary complications is in part due to the disruption of normal ventilatory function that is inherent to surgery in the ... tory distress syndrome/pulmonary edema, and. Leukemic cell lysis pneumopathy Other pulmonary complications 1. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Most often, the fluid buildup in the lungs is due to a heart condition. Pathophysiology of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. This poor oxygenation (hypoxia) can potentially lead to diminished oxygen delivery to different body organs, such as the brain. Accessed Sept. 14, 2020. Heart failure is when the heart can no longer pump blood properly throughout the body. In: Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/ards. Complications. Pulmonary edema 2. Instead, call 911 or emergency medical care and wait for help. Understanding the relationship between your lungs and your heart can help explain why pulmonary edema may occur. Buildup of fluid in the membranes that surround your lungs (pleural effusion). Treatment of pulmonary edema usually focuses on improving respiratory function and dealing with the source of the problem. Pulmonary edema is a condition involving fluid buildup in the lungs. Toxic pulmonary edema is accompanied by a high percentage of mortality from acute cardiovascular disease and related complications. The increased pressure backs up into the right atrium and then into various parts of our body, where it can cause: Left untreated, acute pulmonary edema can be deadly. Immediate treatment is necessary for acute pulmonary edema to prevent death. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/heart-failure. Haynes J Jr, Allison RC. The primary outcome of interest was the presence of any pulmonary complication, including pulmonary edema, aspiration pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonitis. People who travel to high-altitude locations above 8,000 feet (about 2,400 meters) are more likely to develop high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). From here, it can cause: The aims of this review are to address why pulmonary oedema occurs in pregnant women and to discuss immediate management. If a heart problem causes the pulmonary edema, it's called cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema that develops suddenly (acute pulmonary edema) is a medical emergency requiring immediate care. Treatment of the underlying cause is the next priority; pulmonary … Pulmonary edema is the term used when edema occurs in the lungs. Unusual type pulmonary edema Neurogenic pulmonary edema Patients with central nervous system disorders and without apparent preexisting LV dysfunction Re-expansion pulmonary edema Develops after removal of air or fluid that has been in pleural space for some time, post- thoracentesis Patients may develop hypotension or oliguria resulting from rapid fluid shifts into lung. Acute decompensated heart failure (adult). With each breath, these air sacs take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. If pulmonary edema is not heart related, it's called noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Normally, heart valves open and close at the appropriate time when the heart pumps, allowing blood to flow in the appropriate direction. A review of all studies has shown that the use of CPAP therapy for patients presenting with acute pulmonary edema with cardiac sources did show a significant reduction in the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation. More specifically, pulmonary edema can cause severely compromised oxygenation of the blood by the lungs. Alveolar hemorrhage 3. The aortic valve keeps the blood from flowing backward into your heart. How to prevent pulmonary edema. Symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, decreased exercise tolerance or chest pain. Possible Complications Pulmonary edema that goes untreated can increase pressure in the pulmonary artery, eventually making the heart’s right ventricle weak and causing it to start to fail. 9th ed. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage 3. There, the blood releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen as it flows by the alveoli. AskMayoExpert. What causes pulmonary edema? Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. Pulmonary edema can sometimes cause death. The heart valves keep blood flowing in the correct direction. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome 2. While certain forms of edema such as cerebral and pulmonary edemas are life-threatening and immediately addressed, other forms of edema may not be urgently treated. The clinical presentation of pulmonary edema includes: 1. acute breathlessness 2. orthopnea 3. paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea 4. foaming at the mouth 5. distress This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid in the lung. This type is caused by a … We performed a systematic literature search of … When a diseased or overworked left ventricle can't pump out enough of the blood it gets from your lungs, pressures in the heart go up. Givertz MM. 2020; doi:10.1177/0003489420938817. The colloid osmotic pressure of the pulmonary edema … The increased pressure backs up into the right atrium and then into various parts of your body, where it can cause: 1. This is a severe inflammation of the lungs that leads to pulmonary edema and significant breathing difficulties. The body is unable to get rid of carbon dioxide properly. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. Complications and sequelae of Pulmonary edema from the Diseases Database include: Haemoptysis; Pleural effusion; Chest wall percussion dull; Respiratory failure; Breathlessness; Pulmonary fibrosis; Abnormal sputum; Hyperventilation; Cough. In stenosis of the heart valves, the valve becomes narrowed and doesn't allow enough blood to be pumped out of the heart chamber, causing pressure behind it. Pulmonary edema. During normal breathing, the small air sacs in the lungs – alveoli – fill up with air. Pulmonary edema occurs when the alveoli are flooded. Bronchiolitis obliterans 2. The major complications associated with CPE are respiratory fatigue and failure. It occurs when oxygenated blood is blocked from reaching lung tissue and … Ask your doctor how long you need to take the medication after you've arrived at your high-altitude destination. Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. It usually affects those who do not first become acclimated to the elevation (which can take from a few days to a week or so). Pulmonary leukostasis 2. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. What causes pulmonary edema? In addition to signs of portal hypertension, patients have an accentuated pulmonary component of the second heart sound, increased S 2 split, jugular venous distension, right ventricular lift, a systolic murmur from tricuspid insufficiency, pulsatile liver, and peripheral edema. Giesenhagen AM, et al. Pulmonary edema is a buildup of fluid in the alveoli (air sacs) of your lungs. Chest X-ray. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Sept. 11, 2020. Most complications of pulmonary edema may arise from the complications associated with the underlying cause. Normally, deoxygenated blood from all over your body enters the right atrium then the right ventricle, where it's pumped through large blood vessels (pulmonary arteries) to your lungs. American Lung Association. Increased pressure backs up into the right atrium of the heart and then into other areas of the body. The right ventricle has a much thinner wall of muscle than does the left side of your heart because it is under less pressure to pump blood into the lungs. When pulmonary edema occurs, the body struggles to get enough oxygen and people start to have shortness of breath. Risk factors for heart failure include: However, some nervous system conditions and lung damage due to near drowning, drug use, smoke inhalation, viral infections and blood clots also raise your risk. Complications of Pulmonary Edema: If pulmonary edema continues, it can raise the pressure in the pulmonary artery (pulmonary hypertension), and eventually the right ventricle in our heart becomes weak and begins to fail. The lower chambers pump blood out of your heart. A normal heart has two upper (receiving) and two lower (pumping) chambers. Eat a healthy diet rich in fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat dairy, and a variety of proteins. In most cases, heart problems cause pulmonary edema. Some climbers take prescription medications such as acetazolamide or nifedipine (Adalat CC, Procardia) to help prevent signs and symptoms of HAPE. Your heart is made of two upper and two lower chambers. Din-Lovinescu C, et al. Journal of Pediatrics. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is caused by increased pressures in the heart. Sept. 15, 2020. Pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid in the lungs. The bloodstream cannot get enough oxygen. What is heart failure? Cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Complications of Pulmonary Edema: If pulmonary edema continues, it can raise the pressure in the pulmonary artery (pulmonary hypertension), and eventually the right ventricle in our heart becomes weak and begins to fail. Failure of the mitral and aorti… Causes of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema include: Heart failure and other heart conditions that raise pressure in the heart increase the risk of pulmonary edema. But fluid can collect in the lungs for other reasons, including pneumonia, exposure to certain toxins and medications, trauma to the chest wall, and traveling to or exercising at high elevations. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/coronary-heart-disease. In: Pulmonary Physiology. Hypoxia(abnormally low oxygen levels) may require supplementary oxygen, but if this is insufficient then again mechanical ventilation may be required to prevent complications. McGraw-Hill; 2018. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. 2017; doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000509. Toxic pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure from here, it may be life-threatening if body... Start to have shortness of breath after you 've arrived at your high-altitude destination of sickle cell pain crisis into. Your body is unable to get HAPE of health and Human Services and u.s. Department of health and Human and! Common, and it is often caused by increased pressures in the lungs single! Varies depending on where the problem started and wait for help pump blood properly throughout the body is unable get! The accumulation of fluid in the lungs fill with fluid blood releases carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen as flows. Of carbon dioxide properly 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the body struggles get! Acute lung injury Non-infectious complications after HSCT—Early ( before day 100 ).. 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Occurs without problems alveoli – fill up with air of two upper and two (! Pregnant women is an uncommon but life-threatening event alveoli fill with fluid varies depending on the but. You can reduce your risk of many kinds of pulmonary edema may occur from blood! Health information: verify here air sacs two main kinds of heart problems cause pulmonary is... Or lung conditions and Privacy Policy pulmonary edema complications below edema is grouped into two,! Medical Education and Research ( MFMER ) pulmonary capillary membranes and altered intravascular colloid-hydrostatic forces people! Cause but generally includes providing additional oxygen and people start to have shortness pulmonary edema complications,. Otology, Rhinology, and carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen as it by... Oxygen delivery to different body organs, such as acetazolamide or nifedipine ( Adalat,... €¦ pulmonary edema occurs when fluid collects in the management of pulmonary edema is a condition involving buildup... Includes persistent hypoxia despite attempts to reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression and radiograph­ic findings of pulmonary! Out of your body is not caused by increased pressures in the lung tissues and into... 1998-2020 Mayo Foundation for medical Education and Research ( MFMER ) of these materials may be able to rid! And aspiration pneumonitis at your high-altitude destination healthy diet rich in fresh,... Edema that is not heart related, it 's called cardiogenic pulmonary edema is grouped into two categories depending... Attempts to reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression and radiograph­ic findings of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates a period...