Proven UmGungundlovu defense tactics were to attack Trekker commandos in the rocky and hilly terrain on the narrowing access route at Italeni, thereby neutralising the advantages mounted riflemen had over spear-carrying foot soldiers. Popular Afrikaner interpretations of the Battle of Blood River (bolstered by sympathetic historians such as George Theal) played a central role in fostering Afrikaner nationalism[citation needed]. In January 1840 Prince Mpande finally defeated King Dingane in the Battle of Maqongqe and was subsequently crowned as new king of the Zulu by his alliance partner Andries Pretorius. Zulu attack at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War: picture by Richard Caton Woodville, British Regiments at the Battle of Isandlwana: 
Shaka Zulu: Founding father of the Zulu nation The name Shaka Zulu has become synonymous with battle. Uniforms, arms and equipment at the Battle of Rorke’s Drift: The Zulu warriors were formed in regiments by age, their standard equipment the shield and the stabbing spear. It was released on July 20th, 2015. He and his mother, Nandi, were exiled by Senzangakona, and found refuge with the Mthethwa. Melville was the adjutant of the 1st Battalion, the 24th Foot. They believe that the battle demonstrated God's intervention and hence their divine right to exist as an independent people. In addition, those who had treated his mother or him badly in the past were condemned to brutal deaths. The loss of a battalion of troops, news of which was sent by telegraph to Britain, transformed the nation’s attitude to the war. William Wallace pulls out his War Hammer and begins to swings at Shaka Zulu. This is stated in the official guidebook of the Voortrekker Monument (unveiled during the centenary celebrations of the Great Trek on 16 December 1949) that Afrikaners were a nation of heroes exemplifies the conclusions drawn from such events. Chelmsford required the original Number Two Column under Colonel Durnford, a Royal Engineers officer with considerable experience in commanding irregular South African troops, to act in conjunction with Glynn’s Centre Column. On 21st January 1879, Major Dartnell led a mounted reconnaissance in the direction of the advance. Ndlela with his 10,000 troops had retreated from Veglaer, after three days and nights of fruitless attempts to penetrate the enclosed Trekker wagon laager. Shaka had hidden reserve troops inside a natural depression atop his redoubt, and they joined the attack just as the enemy was at its weakest. The problem for Pretorius was that he had somehow to find a way to make Dingane's soldiers attack him in a defensive laager position at a place of his choice, far away from UmGungundlovu and Italeni. Pretorius approved and attended the crowning of Zulu King Mpande in Pietermaritzburg. Maquongqe Dingane had to flee Natal completely, but before he did so, he had Ndlela slowly strangled by cow hide for high treason,[21] on the grounds that he had fought for Mpande, with the same disastrous result for Dingane as at Ncome-Blood River. While the Blood River Memorial is associated with Afrikaner nationalism, the Ncome monument was intended as a symbol of reconciliation—but has become connected with Zulu nationalism. The Zulus were, by this time, lining the bank and opened a heavy fire on the two officers. His life is the subject of numerous colourful and exaggerated stories, many of which are debated by historians. Colonel Evelyn Wood VC, of the 90th Light Infantry, commanded the column that crossed the Buffalo River into the North of Zululand. Mounted volunteers and Natal Police As the site for the defensive wagon laager, Pretorius chose a defensible position close to a vertical 8m descent into a deep hippo pool in the Ncombe River providing excellent protection on two sides. Here are 16 things that made Shaka Zulu a military genius. On 26 November 1838, Andries Pretorius (1798-1863) was appointed as Commander of 64 wagons and 464+ heavily armed Boer combatants directed against Dingane at UmGungundlovu with Jan Gerritze Bantjes (1817-1882) as his war secretary. He sent a second company under Captain Mostyn to join Captain Cavaye’s on the hill and two guns were moved to the left of the camp, with companies of foot to support them. Only mounted men managed to make it to the river by the more direct route to the south-west. It was Shaka's first major battle with Zwide, who could see that his southern neighbour would cause trouble in the future.Masterful tactics in spite of being outnumbered 2:1 won the battle for Shaka. [10] General Ndlela and his crack troops, the Black and White Shields, remained on the other side of the river, observing Dambuza's men at the laager from a safe position across the hippo pool. The Zulus were now the most powerful kingdom in the region. Attached to the Mounted Infantry, Wassall escaped on his horse from the battle and crossed the Buffalo River. Introduction On 22 January 1879, at Rorke's Drift on the Natal border with Zululand, in South Africa, a tiny British garrison of 140 men - many of them sick and wounded - … Shaka and his Zulu warriors used a famous and very successful battle tactic known as the “Buffalo Horns”. British troops escaping across the Buffalo River after the Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War. According to the South African Department of Art and Culture: In ceremonies that lasted about three days, izinyanga zempi, specialist war doctors, prepared izinteleze medicines which made warriors invincible in the face of their opponents. It is likely that they were attacked by around 12,000 Zulus. The year 1838 was the most difficult period for the Voortrekkers since they left the Cape Colony, till the end of the Great Trek. Account of the Battle of Isandlwana: Shaka Zulu, set in 19th century Africa, is one of the highest rated syndicated miniseries of all time. The beginning of Shaka’s reign was far from smooth as he suffered several military setbacks. Some of the Zulus only arrived near sunrise by following the tracks of the wagons. In addition, the Zulus were able to infiltrate between the companies of British foot and the irregulars commanded by Durnford. Isandlwana can be seen from Rorke’s Drift, distinctive shape some 10 miles into Zulu country, that the British troops likened to a Sphinx or a crouching lion. Private Samuel Wassall of the 80th Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War. We hardly saw the twilight of the break of day or the guards, who were still at their posts and could just make out the distant Zulus approaching. CUM Books, Roodepoort, 1982. The Zulu withstood the charge for some time, but rapid losses led them to scatter. Shaka's army was greatly outnumbered, but his men were trained in his way of fighting and he used superior battle tactics to defeat Zwide. Lieutenants Melville and Coghill rescue the colour of the 24th Regiment at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War: picture by Alphonse de Neuville. Pulleine dispatched a message to Chelmsford, warning him that the Zulus were threatening the camp. The white traders of Port Natal. On 6 February 1838, two days after the signing of a negotiated land settlement deal between Retief and Dingane at UmGungundlovu, written by Jan Gerritze Bantjes (1817-1887) which included Trekker access to Port Natal, which the British also had interest in, Dingane invited Retief and his party into his royal residence for a beer-drinking farewell. Dingane's royal residence at UmGungundlovu was naturally protected against attack by hilly and rocky terrain all around, as well as an access route via Italeni passing through a narrow gorge called a defile. ‘The Last of the 24th’ at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War: picture by Richard Thomas Moynan. To approach UmGungundlovu via the Italeni defile with ox wagons would force the wagons into an open column, instead of an enclosed laager as successfully employed defensively at Veglaer on 12 August 1838. The Battle of Blood River (Afrikaans: Slag van Bloedrivier; Dutch: Slag van Bloedrivier, Zulu: iMpi yaseNcome) is the name given for the battle fought between 464 Voortrekkers ("Pioneers"), led by Andries Pretorius, and an estimated 10,000 to 15,000 Zulu on the bank of the Ncome River on 16 December 1838, in what is today KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It seems that this was not so for the 24th. His army devastated anyone who stood in his way. The Battle of Isandlwana (alternative spelling: Isandhlwana) on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Casualties at the Battle of Isandlwana:  Captain Cavaye’s company of the 1st/24th was placed in piquet on a hill to the north. Dambuza's regiments repeatedly stormed the laager but could not break through. The two men plunged back into the Buffalo River and swam to safety on Wassall’s horse, as the Zulus came up. Wassall recrossed the river, tethered his horse, swam over to the soldier and dragged him ashore on the Zulu side. Battle: Isandlwana, War of the Battle of Isandlwana: Zulu War, Chiefs Ntshingwayo kaMahole (seated) Zulu commander at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War, Date of the Battle of Isandlwana: 22nd January 1879. Orders were sent to Colonel Durnford to bring his column up to reinforce the camp. / JULIUS CAESAR! Shaka Zulu vs Julius Caesaris the fifty-sixth installment of Epic Rap Battles of History and the eleventh episode of Season 4. King Dingane desired to have his half brother Mpande, the only prince with children, eliminated as a threat to his throne. Shaka Zulu, London's largest South African restaurant, opened its doors in August 2010 with a special royal blessing from the Zulu King, HRH Goodwill Zwelithini. Shaka fought for extermination, incorporating the remnants of the clans he smashed into the Zulu. Building a church in Trekker emigrant context was symbol for establishing a settled state. Henry Cele, James Fox, Grace Jones: first battle for Africa [13] The Trekkers pursued their fleeing enemies and hunted them down for three hours. He stressed that South Africans needed to consider the day as "a new covenant which binds us to the shared commitment of building a new country."[27]. Signallers of the 24th Regiment: Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War: picture by Orlando Norie. [19] This time the Zulu were victorious. Movable wooden barriers and ladders which could be quickly opened for cavalry were fastened between the wagon wheels to prevent intruders, with two smoothbore, short barrel artillery pieces positioned at the corners. He was one of the most influential monarchs in the Zulu kingdom. The Zulus were forced to act by the sudden appearance of the mounted volunteers and advanced in some confusion, shaking out as best they could into the traditional form of assault: the left horn, the central chest of the attack and the right horn. HISTORY Shaka Zulu vs Julius Caesar. [9] In support of Prince Mpande as Dingane's replacement, Pretorius' strategy was to target Dingane only. The highly experienced general Ndlela had served under Shaka, and was also prime minister and chief advisor under Dingane. In December 1878, the British authorities delivered an ultimatum to Cetshwayo, requiring him to give up a group of Zulus accused of murdering a party of British subjects. Earlier on 9 April 1838, a Trekker horse commando without ox wagons, thereafter called the "Flight Commando", had unsuccessfully attempted to penetrate the UmGungundlovu defense at nearby Italeni valley, resulting in the loss of several Trekker lives. As evening approached a thick mist settled over the wagon site above which the sky was clear. Mackenzie[22] doubts the reported number of Zulu deaths. Lieutenant Colonel Henry Pulleine, 1st/24th Regiment, British commander killed at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War. Durnford promptly left the camp to follow up the reports of the imminence of the Zulus and Pulleine agreed to support him, if he found himself in difficulties. With the power of their firearms and with their ox wagons in a laager formation and some excellent tactics, the Boers fought off the Zulu. It is thought that natives living in Natal came down to the river and, on the urgings of the Zulus, killed British soldiers attempting to escape. This could partly help explain why Dambuza's forces were sitting on the ground close to the wagon laager when the Trekkers first saw them. After more than two hours of fierce battle, the Commander in Chief gave orders that the gates be opened and mounted men sent to fight the enemy in fast attacks, as the enemy near constantly stormed the laager time and again, and he feared the ammunition would soon run out. The same prisoner led some of the Trekker party into a trap at the White Umfolozi River, eleven days after the battle at Ncome River. Coghill, also of the 24th Foot, crossed the river soon after and went to Melville’s assistance. The British infantry wore red tunics, white solar topee helmets and dark blue trousers, with red piping down the side. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});
, Lord Chelmsford’s column fetching away the wagons after the Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War: picture by Melton Pryor. A Zulu eyewitness said that their first charge was mown down like grass by the Boer muskets. Private Samuel Wassall was awarded the Victoria Cross for his conduct at the battle. After the battle Shaka was said to have led his army some 70 miles, at a trot, to the enemy’s home stockade. The Centre Column carried all its supplies in ox carts, each pulled by a team of up to twenty oxen, walking at a slow deliberate pace. 471 Africans died fighting for the British. Shaka, legendary king of the Zulus nearly two centuries ago, is still an influence on the Zulu culture today. [25], The Ncome monument on the east side of the river commemorates the fallen Zulu warriors. Furthermore, he neither took a legal wife nor fathered a son, paranoid that an heir would plot against him. Then, by halting his advance towards UmGungundlovu on 15 December 1838, 40 km before reaching the defile at Italeni, Pretorius had eliminated the Italeni terrain trap. Shaka tries to counter with his Iwisa, and the two lock weapons. The last survivor of the main battle, a soldier of the 24th, escaped to a cave on the hillside where he continued fighting until his ammunition gave out and he was shot down. 2 guns and 70 men of N Battery, 5th Brigade, Royal Artillery (equipped with 2 seven pounder guns). Dingane had agreed that, if Retief could recover approximately 700 head of cattle stolen from the Zulus by the Tlokwa, he would let them have land upon which to establish farms. By the outbreak of war, the Zulus had tens of thousands of muskets and rifles, but of a poor standard and the Zulus were ill-trained in their use. Shaka fought as a warrior under Jobe, and then under Jobe's successor, Dingiswayo, leader of … The Zulus persevered through apartheid and remain the largest ethnic group in South Africa. Shaka Zulu was the illegitimate son of Senzangakona, King of the Zulus. [18], The conflict between Dingane and the Trekkers continued for one more year after the Battle of Blood River. On the British right, the companies of the 24th and the NNI were unable to prevent this envelopment. He said, ‘But I left 1,000 men to guard the camp.’. Coghill’s horse was killed and the colour swept away. Hilltops had to be picketed and the country scouted carefully for Zulus in ambush. The danger to the British line was presented by the Zulu ‘horns’, which raced to find the end of the British flank and envelope it. The battle was set with the laager protected on two flanks. From the Day of the Vow, Afrikaners consider the site and the commemoration of the day as sacred. Beckett: Oxford University Press (a particularly interesting history of the two battles with a consideration of their place in British and Zulu culture), To the Zulu War index However, Durnford’s men on the extreme right flank did run out of ammunition and were forced to mount up and ride back into the camp, thereby leaving the British flank open. The country was hilly scrubland, without roads and progress was painfully slow. Shaka Zulu throws his Iwisa at Wallace- who blocks it with his Targe- and then pulls out another. The Zulu War began in early January 1879 as a simple campaign of expansion. The ‘horns’ of the Zulu attack did not quite close around the British camp, some soldiers managing to make their way towards Rorke’s Drift. Eleven days after the British commenced their invasion of Zululand in South Africa, a Zulu force of some 20,000 warriors attacked a portion of the British main column consisting of about 1,800 British, colonial and native troops and perhaps 400 civilians. Lancer is Shaka Zulu (シャカズールー), one of the greatest monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom, and was known for his great military reforms and the expansion of his land’s territory. Combatants at the Battle of Isandlwana: Zulu army against a force of British troops, Natal units and African levies. [6] Dingane's soldiers proceeded to impale all Retief's men. For instance, it is said that he would have his warriors clubbed to death upon the merest sign of weakness. Both were used to fire devastating grapeshot. [12] Whether or not there is any truth in this, historian S.P. Chelmsford’s troops began a search of the hills. With a $24 million production budget, the program recaptures the rise to power of Shaka Zulu, King of the Zulus, who revolutionized African warfare with ingenious battle strategies and an invincible army. He swings it around and throws it at Shaka Zulu, but Shaka rolls right under it. Chelmsford’s force was unaware of the disaster that had overwhelmed Pulleine’s troops, until the news filtered through that the camp had been taken. I could not count them, but I was told that a captive Zulu gave the number at thirty-six regiments, each regiment calculated to be "nine hundred to a thousand men" strong. Approaching it in the dark, he had his troops sing the enemy’s victory chant. British colonial officials and the commander-in-chief in South Africa, Lord Chelmsford, considered the independent Zulu Kingdom ruled by Cetshwayo a threat to the British colony of Natal, with which it shared a long border along the Buffalo River. The column was to make for Ulundi, Cetshwayo’s principal kraal, joining Pearson’s southern column for the final assault. Mackenzie claims that 200 indigenous servants looked after the horses and cattle and helped load muskets, but no definite proof or witness of servants helping to reload is available. The covenant included that a church would be built in honour of the Christian God, should the commando be successful and reach UmGungundlovu alive in order to diminish the power of Dingane. General Sir Garnet Wolseley was sent to replace Lord Chelmsford, arriving after the final battle of the war. Movement was further hampered by heavy rain, causing the rivers and streams to swell and deepen. Pulleine’s battalion, drawn up in front of the camp, at the base of the ridge, opened fire on the advancing Zulus of the ‘chest’, who found themselves impeded by the many dongas, or gullies, in their path and eventually went to ground. [13], As Bantjes wrote in his .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. Posted on 12/14/2020 12/14/2020 by apho2018 12/14/2020 12/14/2020 by apho2018 Cetshwayo, the Zulu King, fearing British aggression, took pains to purchase firearms wherever they could be bought. He encountered the Zulus in strength. Both officers struggled to the Natal bank, where it seems likely that they were killed by Natal natives. The battle begins in a valley with William Wallace armed with his Targe and Ball & Chain. The battle of Isandlwana stunned the world.
The formation for the attack, described as the ‘horns of the beast’, was said to have been devised by Shaka, the Zulu King who established Zulu hegemony in Southern Africa. A Company of the 2nd Battalion, 24th Foot, remained at Rorke’s Drift, the advanced base for the column. The Zulus were equipped mainly with the traditional assegaiiron spears and … Today two complexes mark the battle site: the Ncome Monument and Museum Complex east of the Ncome River, and the Blood River Monument and Museum Complex to the west. The regular British infantry were equipped with the breach loading single shot Martini-Henry rifle and bayonet. [13] In close combat the stabbing spear provided obvious advantages over its longer cousin. One troop of mounted volunteers pursued a party of Zulus as they retired, until suddenly out of a fold in the ground the whole Zulu army appeared. The Zulus however had disappeared. Mackenzie acknowledges that the casualty count was not impossible. Three Voortrekker commando members were lightly wounded, including Pretorius. H Company, 1st/24th Regiment, annihilated at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22nd January 1879 in the Zulu War. On the Day of Reconciliation 2019, South African President Cyril Ramaphosa described the Voortrekkers as invaders and the Zulu army as "Freedom Fighters". At about 10am, Colonel Durnford arrived at Isandlwana with a party of mounted men and a rocket troop. Shaka also became increasingly brutal and mad. While the Trekkers were being entertained by Dingane's dancing warriors/soldiers, Dingane suddenly accused the visiting party of witchcraft and ordered his men: "Bulalani abathakathi" (Kill the sorcerers...). The main body of the army delivered a frontal assault, called the ‘loins’, while the ‘horns’ spread out behind each of the enemy’s flanks and delivered the secondary and often fatal attack in the enemy’s rear. [19], A church, called "the Church of the Vow", was built in the Natal town of Pietermaritzburg in 1841, where Pretorius settled on the farm "Welverdient" (English: "Well-earned"), a gift from the Trekkers. He then saw a comrade from the Mounted Infantry struggling in the water. Dambusa, Dingane's other general, had already been executed by Mpande and Pretorius when he fell into their hands before the battle. After two hours and four waves of attack, with the intermittent lulls providing crucial reloading and resting opportunities for the Trekkers, Pretorius ordered a group of horsemen to leave the encampment and engage the Zulu in order to induce the disintegration of their formations. Of the 3,000 dead Zulu soldiers, two were princes, leaving Ndlela's favourite Prince Mpande as frontrunner in the subsequent battle for the Zulu crown. Given general Ndlela's previous defense and attack experience at Italeni and Veglaer during April 1838 and August 1838 respectively, Ndlela's tactical options were limited. From Wasbank they slowly and daily moved closer to the site of the Battle of Blood River, practising laager defence tactics every evening for a week long. The most memorable episode of this stage of the battle concerns Lieutenants Melville and Coghill. Battle of Monongahela 1755 – Braddock’s Defeat, Battle of Kabul and the retreat to Gandamak, Gallipoli Part I : Naval Attack on the Dardanelles, Gallipoli Part II: Land attack on Gallipoli Peninsular, Gallipoli Part III: ANZAC landing on 25th April 1915, Gallipoli Part IV: First landings at Cape Helles and Y Beach on 25th April 1915, Battle of Jutland Part I: Opposing fleets, Battle of Jutland Part II: Opening Battle Cruiser action on 31st May 1916, Battle of Jutland Part III: Clash between British and German Battle Fleets during the evening 31st May 1916, Battle of Jutland Part IV: Night Action 31st May to 1st June 1916, Battle of Jutland Part V: Casualties and Aftermath, General Braddock’s Defeat on the Monongahela in 1755 I, Gallipoli Part I: Naval Attack on the Dardanelles, Gallipoli Part II: Genesis of the land attack on the Gallipoli Peninsula. As the Zulus advanced, Durnford’s rocket troop was overwhelmed and the equipment taken, the Royal Artillery crews managing to escape. 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