Switchgrass is a perennial native grass found predominantly throughout the Great Plains region of the United States, but is highly adaptable to many other climates and soil types. blond little girl standing in front of pampas grass - switchgrass stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. 5d). The Michigan soils we studied are sandier and have lower fertility than the Wisconsin soils, which are loess‐derived. PCA was used to display distances between sites based on all four data types (lipid, 16S/18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and NifH). 4b,c), but this did not influence interpretation of results. Of the variables measured, pH had the highest projection on the second PCA axis, which explained only 8.4% of the variance. Additionally, the lipid and NifH data separated the samples by location (Table 2 and Fig. (2011) found an even longer historical effects lasting through 17 years of succession in a previously cultivated field. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a summer perennial grass that is native to North America. Theoretically, more diverse plant communities will improve sustainability by requiring fewer inputs than monocultures, although support for this hypothesis in agricultural production settings is scant (but see Tilman et al., 2006; Webster et al., 2010). These 187 matches fell into 100 genera. Watch Store Tour. 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; 866-417-8156; Email Us; Navigation . The only significant difference in dispersion (α = 0.05) was for the NifH data by location (Fig. For the intensive sites, total soil carbon was higher in the Wisconsin samples for each of the studied crops (anova, P < 0.001, Fig. (2005) and Mao et al. Percentages were calculated based on all OTUs initially present. In addition, the reverse primer included a 5 bp bar code (designated by above) for multiplexing of samples during sequencing. Im Anbau liefert die Pflanze durch Low-Input Produktion, Erosionsschutz, Wildschutz und durch die Aufnahme von Schadstoffen weitere wertvolle Beiträge zum Schutz unserer Ressourcen. Potential chimeras were identified and excluded from downstream analysis. Their use for biofuel may increase food costs and may encourage more land to be converted to agriculture, which has negative ramifications for ecosystem carbon balance, wildlife habitat, and a host of other ecosystem services (Fargione et al., 2008). Plant species composition and biofuel yields of conservation grasslands, Changes in soil microbial community structure in a tallgrass prairie chronosequence, A new method for non‐parametric multivariate analysis of variance, Distance‐based tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersions, Soil texture affects soil microbial and structural recovery during grassland restoration, Fungal‐to‐bacterial ratios in soils investigated for enhanced C sequestration, Energy crops and their implications on soil and environment, Diversity and dynamics of microbial communities in soils from agro‐ecosystems, Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability. Two years ago, we used sheep to plant a diverse mixture of cover crops and perennial pasture plants. The factors considered in these analyses were state (location), crop, and the interaction between them. Corn is presently the major crop used for ethanol production in the United States, and soil microbial communities under corn and prairie have often been contrasted, showing differences in microbial community composition and improved carbon storage and soil aggregation under prairie (Bailey et al., 2002; Allison et al., 2005; Bach et al., 2010; Fierer et al., 2013; Murphy & Foster, 2014). Wilkommen. Our main questions were as follows: (i) how do the different biofuel crops affect soil microbial communities, that is, are soil microbial communities under switchgrass and mixed grasses more similar to those under prairie, (ii) how are any effects modified by location and soil type, and (iii) how do alternative soil microbial assay methods compare in revealing community differences? Annual crops such as corn continue to be the most readily abundant and available crops for biofuel production in the United States (US‐DOE, 2011), while canola and soybeans have been used to produce biodiesel (IEA, 2007). Ellipses are 95% confidence intervals about centroid means and were drawn to indicate the main factors related to community structure. 4b,c. Switchgrass is one of the easiest forms of wildlife cover to plant and if planted correctly, switchgrass can be fully established after only 2 Summers of growth! There would be no standing water. These samples were aligned and clustered into 10 092 clusters (OTUs) at a distance of 3%; 6628 of these clusters were global singletons with Good's estimated sample coverage of 52 to 92% and averaging 85%. S2, Tables S1 and S2). A layout like this would encourage plants to self-seed and spread, filling up the spaces to achieve the look of a small drier or upland prairie. Intensive sites were located at the Arlington Agricultural Research Station (AARS) in Wisconsin and at the Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) in Michigan (triangles). For this reason, we are limited to discussing trends in the data, the strengths of which may be judged from the relative error bars in Figs 1-3. About 15% of the sequences had frame shift errors detected and corrected by FrameBot, such that more than 99% of the sequences were retained for analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to display distances between sites based on their soil attributes. All agricultural activity affects biodiversity, soil fertility, and water resources (Groom et al., 2008), and these factors should be assessed when evaluating the sustainability of biofuel cropping systems. Previous researchers found Paraglomerales are difficult to detect in roots and soils and that commonly used primers for AMF fail to amplify Paraglomerales sequences (Lumini et al., 2010; Gosling et al., 2014). Learning how to plant switchgrass by either frost seeding or using a no till drill, will offer you 2 sure-fire ways … The primers used are reported as being selective for Proteobacteria sequences (Diallo et al., 2008). This agreement between approaches indicates that similar factors are shaping the structure of bacteria, fungi, and N2‐fixing communities under our studied conditions and that disparate taxa are being affected similarly by cultivation, soil type, and land use. The ways and extent to which these crops have been found to influence soil microbial communities varied according to the methods used, spatial sampling schemes, soil and environmental variables, land management and land history, but a general finding has been that cultivation of perennial grasses stimulates communities more similar to those under prairies (Liang et al., 2012). 1a). Switchgrass. MIE = Michigan extensive sites; WIE = Wisconsin extensive sites; Co = corn; Pr = prairie; Sw = switchgrass. Moreover, the lipid data proved more sensitive to cropping system treatments showing the importance of management on ecosystem processes. Lipid analysis provided general taxonomic information coupled to biomass estimates that gave insight into ecosystem function (Kirk et al., 2004). Most of the AMF sequences were recovered from prairie soils, which also presented the highest detected richness, with a combination of at least four genera per site. Mycorrhizal fungi are known to enhance P absorption and utilization, so an increase in AMF implies an improvement in the absorption and utilization efficiency of this nutrient. Michigan and Wisconsin intensive sites differed markedly in their physical and chemical soil attributes (Fig. It also makes a superior cattle feed and the deep root system of switchgrass helps to build soil carbon. Hauptgründe für diese Entwicklung sind Preisschwankungen auf den Agrarmärkten und relativ sichere Rahmenbedingungen für die Bioenergieproduktion. Carbon, nitrogen, pH and texture of soils from Michigan (MI) and Wisconsin (WI) intensive and extensive sites. As I hike today, I’ll listen to the breeze shush the big bluestem and switchgrass. Raw sequences were sorted by bar code, trimmed, filtered to remove sequences of low quality (10% threshold), and aligned. Environmental data were not available for sample WIE.Sw.2. Switchgrass is a warm-season perennial bunchgrass native to much of the United States. In our case, we targeted the nifH gene, which codes for dinitrogenase reductase, a component of nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for N2 fixation. Previous experiments by Murphy & Foster (2014) and Buckley & Schmidt (2003) demonstrated that despite changes in plant cover and management, soil microbial communities remained similar even after 6 and 7 years, respectively. 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