Historically used as horse hay. Hurd named the grass "hurd grass" but a farmer named Timothy Hanson began to promote cultivation of it as a hay about 1720, and the grass has been known by its present name since then. These grasses include timothy, orchard grass, and brome grass--all introduced species--and native Canada wildrye, redtop, and June grass, which is also called blue grass. 2 PASTURE GRASSES 3 By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. It is relatively high in fibre, especially when cut late. Timothy (Phleum pratense) is an abundant perennial grass native to most of Europe except for the Mediterranean region. In pasture it tends to be overwhelmed by more competitive grasses. It is a member of the genus Phleum, consisting of about 15 species of annual and perennial grasses. distinguished from phalaris and meadow foxtail by the fine detail of the spikelets - timothy has pointed glumes shaped so as to give the end of the spikelet a flat appearance with a distinctive double tip. The plants may be severely damaged by overgrazing especially in the seedling year. The plant is named after American farmer Timothy Hanson, who promoted its use outside New Identification to species level was not possible, and the closest relatedness was noted for A. alternata/A. Habitat and Distribution Foxtail grasses usually grow in clumps, and green and yellow foxtails grow 1 to 3 feet tall, while giant foxtail ranges between 3 and 7 feet in height. Digitized photos and descriptions of the species characteristics are included. The seed head. The grass was introduced to America in 1720 by Timothy Hanson. The stamen are pink. Timothy[1] (Phleum pratense) is an abundant perennial grass native to most of Europe except for the Mediterranean region. Grasses, Rushes & Sedges. Because it's a grass, it is nearly impossible to eradicate with herbicides that won't also damage your desirable grass. Leaves vary in length from a few inches to a foot and are about 1/4 … Timothy is native to most of mainland Europe and is widely cultivated as a hay and a pasture grass in North America and the United Kingdom. Germination time (shown below) can sometimes help determine grass type. Timothy is a hay-type forage grass, with relatively few basal leaves below the cutting height. If you keep an eye on these plants, you can tell when the seed heads start developing within the sheath (the boot stage). It is easily weakened by frequent cutting or grazing. Timothy is well suited to moist heavy soils as it is naturally common on low lying grasslands. You have 3 options: If the foxtail infestation is minor, you can overseed with desirable cool-season grasses in the late summer (mid-August to mid-September in Pennsylvania) so that by springtime, the new grass can shade out the foxtail seedlings. Timothy (Phleum pratense) is a common forage crop and pasture grass in the U.S. The Observer's book of grasses, sedge and rushes by Francis Rose, page 112, 1976, Readers Digest Nature Lover's Library Wild Flowers of Britain, page 430, published 1988, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Timothy_(grass)&oldid=995222353, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 21:54. They multiply rapidly because they produce a lot of seeds. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. grasses such as smooth brome, perennial rye, or Kentucky bluegrass (Moser, et al., 1996). Ordering. Two to four feet in height, but is not able to vegetatively propagate. It generates large amounts of pollen and … Typhaceae. Timothy has now become naturalized throughout most of the US and Canada. The is a series of pages that identify the major forage grass and legume species of Indiana and the North Central States. Readily grazed. Can also be used for hay or silage. In spring of the second year, internodes elongate, and the seedhead forms. Leaves vary in length from a few inches to more than a foot and are about 0.6 cm (0.25 in) wide, narrowing gently toward the tip. Next, check for the awns, which look like hairs coming off each tiny seed on the head. Timothy hay (Phleum pretense) is a common animal fodder which is found in all states. What is Timothy grass? "Timothy hay" redirects here. During the winter and summer they shed much… Some varieties may have very long and obvious awns, but others may have shorter awns that you need to look for. The leaves are flat and taper to a thin point. It is considered a harsh, coarse grass little relished by livestock if cut earlier. Timothy ( Phleum pratense L.) is a bunch-type grass that produces an open sod. Legumes such as alfalfa and the clovers--ladino, sweet, white, red, and others--are often included in plantings of cool season grasses. Timothy is a hay-type forage grass, with relatively few basal leaves below the cutting height. The RED / AMBER / GREEN dots indicate how easy it is to identify the species - see our Identification Difficulty page for more information. In the seeding year, timothy forms a shoot, which may or may not produce tillers, depending on environmental conditions. Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.) is more readily colonized by endophytic fungi than perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and the ratio of fungi isolated from the above species was determined at 3:1. Timothy hay is rich in long fibre and its abrasive texture helps to grind down the teeth, keeping both the teeth and jaw in good order. Therefore, if your field had a lot of foxtail last year and you use this herbicide in the spring, you will have bare ground in its place and no way to fill it in with desirable grass until the following spring. Identification. The plant gets its name from Timothy Hanson, who promoted the grass in the 1700s as a pasture grass. Timothy has no awns. Plant Characteristics: This grass is a leafy, tall-growing grass. and bluebunch wheatgrass have spike inflorescences, for example. Photo: Ohio State University. An early, fast growing, dark-green grass that looks similar to timothy. So how do we tell these similar looking plants apart? Foxtail does not have corms. timothy This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. [2] It is a member of the genus Phleum, consisting of about 15 species of annual and perennial grasses. Tightly branched inflorescences can sometimes look like a spike, but upon closer inspection you will notice that spikelets are attached to the stem by a short stalk or pedicel. Timothy grass care is minimal in most regions. Phleum pratense is a tufted or single-stemmed, short-lived, cool-season perennial grass that grows in stools or clumps, reaching up to 150 cm in height. Timothy grass was named after Timothy Hanson, a farmer and agriculturalist who is said to have introduced it to the southern states of the US in the early 18th century. Timothy. It grows well on moist soils and forms a sod. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. Timothy grows to 48–150 cm (19–59 in) tall, with leaves up to 43 cm (17 in) long and 1.3 cm (0.5 in) broad. Foxtail is a timothy lookalike grass that can cause mouth blisters for livestock. B. W iese n- Lieschgras , Wies ensc hw i ng el, W ies en- Rispengras od er Knaul gr as. The ligule is a … Timothy is a beloved favorite of horses and their owners for its palatability and the great hay it produces. Remember to take soil tests and correct pH or nutrient deficiencies before you seed, and to avoid grazing the pastures for at least 6 months after seeding to allow the new grasses to establish healthy root systems. Alternative Titles: Phleum pratense, herd’s-grass, meadow cat’s-tail Timothy, (Phleum pratense), also called herd’s-grass or meadow cat’s-tail, perennial grass of the family Poaceae. An introduced cool-season grass, timothy is very winter hardy but lacks heat and drought hardiness compared to many other hay grasses, mainly because of shallow, fibrous roots. Timothy (Phleum pratense) is an abundant perennial grass native to most of Europe except for the Mediterranean region.It is also known as timothy'-grass, meadow cat's-tail or common cat's tail. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. FSC Grasses identification guide covers 30 species common in Britain and Ireland. There are a few features you can check. Foxtail is a summer annual grass, meaning it grows from seed in the spring and dies in the fall. Benefits include prevention of soil erosion and organic matter. You can order any quantity of this species from 1g up to 250000g. Medium to high-yielding, cool season pasture and hay (no more than 3 cut system with legume included). Timothy is a relatively short-lived, cool-season, introduced perennial grass that grows in stools or clumps. It is easily weakened by frequent cutting or grazing. The best timothy grass seeds utilize timothy seeds with top genetics. The foxtail seed head may droop over, which is a dead giveaway that it isn't timothy. FSA 2139 - General Traits of Forage Grasses Grown in Arkansas The grass is native to Europe, temperate Asia and North Africa. The sheath is split with the margins overlapping. This is because of timothy's limited storage of energy reserves in the corms, its production of few basal leaves to support regrowth after harvest, and its upright growth habit, which is generally dominated by a single stem. You may want to use a magnifying glass or lens. Timothy, (Phleum pratense), perennial grass of the family Poaceae. Bec… =='''Benefits as a subsidiary crop'''== Timothy could be used as a longer term cover crop which may also include livestock. The plant is adapted to numerous climates and performs well in even cold, northern regions. On a foxtail plant, you will see a fringe of hairs instead of a tall membrane. It is commonly grown for cattle feed and, in particular, as hay for horses. Germination Period of Timothy Grass. There are three important things to remember with this method: There is one pre-emergent herbicide approved for pasture use in Pennsylvania called Prowl H2O that you apply in the spring, before the foxtail seedlings emerge, that will prevent them from growing. Timothy is a very palatable grass valued both for grazing and hay making. It has a shallow, compact, and fibrous root system. In conclusion, horse owners and hay producers should learn how to tell the difference between foxtail and timothy grasses. The vast majority of the isolated fungi were ascomycetes. Timothy hay is a staple food for domestic pet rabbits, guinea pigs, chinchillas, and degus, often making up the bulk of their diet. It generates large amounts of pollen and is a bane for allergy sufferers during its long flowering period. The leaves of a foxtail plant may have some hairs as well. For the author who used Timothy Hay as a pen name, see. Grown under irrigation or high-rainfall conditions, primarily for grazing of sheep and cattle. In a severe infestation, eradicating the foxtail may be difficult and can take several years. It is a member of the genus Phleum, consisting of about 15 species of annual and perennial grasses. The blade is 3-8 mm wide, 10-15 cm long and flat with a sharp-pointed tip; the edges are rough. This will bury the seeds too deep for them to germinate. The panicle is two to six inches in length. Other weeds may pop up in the bare areas, and bare ground is at higher risk for soil erosion. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement, The Dangers of Fall Leaves and Yard Trimmings to Horses. Its pollen is a common allergen; it has recently been used in small amounts as part of a new hay fever vaccine Grazax, which is designed to recondition the body's immune system so it no longer responds to pollen. Phleum pratense L.,timothy, is a relatively short- lived, cool-season perennial that grows in stools or clumps and has a shallow, compact, and fibrous root system. However be aware that it can be slow in the first year of production. However, there are several different varieties of foxtail, and some seed heads remain upright. Threats and conservation Timothy grass is common throughout the UK and the rest of Europe. At first glance, it looks like the popular timothy grass, but a close inspection can tell you that it's really foxtail. Timothy hay was once considered the best hay for horses and produced on a large scale for working horses in towns and cities. You will need to be able to identify the grasses without the seed head present! It is often confused with meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis). So how do we tell these similar looking plants apart? It is best adapted to cool, moist soils. First, it is relatively expensive and needs to be sprayed twice for maximum effectiveness. Now that you can tell the difference between timothy and foxtail, what can you do about the foxtail in your pasture or hayfield? timothy, meadow fescue, smooth meadow grass or orchard grass. Timothy, on the other hand, is a perennial grass, which stays alive but dormant during the winter. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Main growth in spring, summer and autumn. If you can pull or dig up the plant, take a look at the crown, where the shoots meet the roots. There are a few features you can check. It is a cool season perennial grass with rapid growth. It is an important forage grass that is grown in the cool temperate regions of the world. Plants have a shallow, compact, fibrous roots that grow corms at the stem base. Identify a weed; List of all weeds; Key to weeds in turf; Orchardgrass, also called cock's foot, is a perennial bunch grass found throughout California to about 8200 feet (2500 m), except for deserts. It grows well in heavy soil, and is noted for its resistance to cold and drought, and thus ability to grow in dry upland or poor sandy soils. This will only be obvious when the grasses are going to seed and aren't mowed. It is not particularly tolerant of heavy summer grazing and grows better when grazed periodically or cut for hay. Grass Family: Poaceae Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) Click on images to enlarge . Timothy was an agricultural crop from Europe that escaped cultivation and is now widespread across North America. To come back year after year, it drops hundreds and hundreds of seeds into the soil. lely.com Graserträge in Weidehaltungen sind deutlich höher als jene, von z. P. arundinacea and P. … Timothy flowers later, from June until August, whereas meadow foxtail flowers from April until June. Grass yields in pasture grazing are clearly higher than those of e.g. Various species of Phalaris grow on every continent except Antarctica. How are you at identifying seed? Photo: Ohio State University. Learn how to distinguish between the two and eradicate foxtail. This will only be obvious when the grasses are going to seed and aren't mowed. In addition, two Basidiomycota … Area of adaptation: Has not been fully assessed. Timothy has bulb-like structures called “corms" and they may resemble the bulbs of onion grass. The spike-like panicle is cylindrical and compact. It grows in erect culms 20 to 40 inches tall. Key identification features like leaves, flower heads and ligules are illustrated for each species. The foxtail seed head may droop over, which is a dead giveaway that it isn't timothy. tenuissima (section Alternata) based on the GenBank sequence database. Left image: Timothy seed head. Used infrequently in north Arkansas. Why do we need this? The leaves are hairless, rolled rather than folded, and the lower sheaths turn dark brown. Orchardgrass ( Dactylis glomerata ) Click on images to enlarge the pasture in the areas. 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