2010). Publié: 23 avril 2010 0:00 CET. 2010). Veðurstofa Íslands (2010) Update on activity: eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. Report to ICAO—June 2012. Nov. 21, 2020. The catalogue has a strong emphasis on ash hazards and impacts, as it is designed with the needs of aviation for rapid information at times of potential crises. In about a third of the global ocean, the abundance of life is limited by a dearth of biologically available iron. J Geophys Res 117:B00C08, Heiðarsson EP, Loughlin SC, Witham C, Barsotti S (2014) Report on forensic analysis of the Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn communication and risk management response across Europe. Ministry of the Interior (2008) Civil protection Act No. These reports were openly discussed with local residents at a Temporary Service Centre established in Heimaland to deal with the crisis, which is in close proximity to Eyjafjallajökull. Efforts made in 2003–2006 were therefore aimed at understanding and mitigating the risk from eruptions in both Mýrdalsjökull (Katla) and Eyjafjallajökull, in relation to reducing the likelihood of accidents and fatalities to jökulhlaups (Guðmundsson and Gylfason 2005). In: Erfurt-Cooper P (ed) Volcanic tourist destinations. When you create and publish a form on the website, the users can fill it out and submit their answers. I would like to know the national and international responses to the Icelandic Volcano eruption earlier this year. Its peculiar and unusual name, Eyjafjallajökull, is formed due to combination of various words with meanings, viz., Eyja meaning island; fjalla meaning mountain; and jokull meaning glacier. The National Broadcasting Service, ‘RÚV’ established a crisis-broadcasting studio in the NCCC media centre in Reykjavik enabling them to provide vital information to the Icelandic population (Heiðarsson et al. The Civil Protection Act No. A 500-meter- (2,000-foot) long fissure opened in the Fimmvörduháls pass to the west of the ice-covered summit of Eyjafjallajökull. The date of the last eruption. Tephra fallout and flood inundation data derived from Gudmundsson et al. …we did not receive any message, neither on the landline nor to the GSM phone. Also in response to Eyjafjallajökull's impact on air travel, ICAO formed the International Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF) in May 2010, charging it to examine how best to define hazardous airspace and manage aviation risk. The two anonymous reviewers are also thanked for providing invaluable recommendations that helped improve the manuscript from the original. … Also I don't really think there are any responses as nobody was hurt - doesn't responses … IATA notes that approx £130 million lost economically for airline companies, 4. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10:407–420, Jóhannesdóttir G (2005) Við tölum aldrei um Kötlu hér mat íbúa á hættu vegna Kötlugoss. Iceland has several volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates – the North American plate and Eurasian plate. The scenario contains a volcanic eruption with a large ash emission but in a rather short period of time to test the response … Direct and rapid communication between monitoring scientists at IMO and IES with DCPEM and local police prompted response such as road closures and evacuations in line with the hazard assessment-based pre-defined plans. In April 2010 the ash cloud from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull volcano triggered the biggest aviation shutdown in Europe since World War II. Since the 2014–15 Bárðarbunga-Holuhraun eruption, NCIP and DCPEM for south Iceland are engaging with local communities in the development of all-hazards crisis management plans. As soon as the eruption site was located in the early morning on the flank of Eyjafjallajökull and not under the ice-cap, residents were allowed to return to their homes. Based on their real-time hydrological, meteorological and seismological assessments, notifications of an impending eruption usually come from the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO). One resident stated “[The regional police chief] has done some very good work in trying to make better plans with the residents.” Part of the developing plans included detailed site visits and close collaborations with the tourism industry. The glacier of Eyjafjallajökull is approximately 100 square kilometres (39 square miles), making it the country’s sixth largest. 1), which is overlain by a 200 m thick ice-cap bearing the same name, has produced three eruptions since the tenth century: in 1612, from 1821 to 1823, and the recent 2010 events.Past eruptions have produced very fined-grained ash deposits typically found within a 10 km radius from the Eyjafjallajökull crater (Larsen et al. AXELOS' PPM Historian returns to unpack how effective Risk Management could have impacted The European Ash Cloud, Eyjafjallajökull. It has been an active volcano since many decades. J Volcanol Geoth Res 189:33–48, Bird DK, Gísladóttir G, Dominey-Howes D (2011) Different communities, different perspectives: issues affecting residents’ response to a volcanic eruption in southern Iceland. The volcano Eyjafjallajökull (AYA-feeyapla-yurkul) burst to life in March after nearly two centuries of dormancy. Led by the Ministry of Industry and Tourism (now the Ministry of the Interior), this team met every morning during the eruption, and included people from the DCPEM, IMO, IES, tourism operators, airlines and public relations people from the ministries and municipalities. All published reports and academic articles are cited accordingly. Hence, the purpose of this chapter is to provide a narrative of crisis coordination and communication in Iceland through the lens of the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. 294-296. The aim, however, is to develop an Icelandic version and to include all information and results from the ongoing long-term volcanic risk assessment program for Iceland. In: Margottini C, Canuti P, Sassa K (eds) Landslide science and practice, vol 3., Spatial analysis and modellingSpringer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 435–440, Johannesdottir G (2016) National risk assessment for Iceland. Icelandic Meteorological Office observes all Iceland's volcanoes and records any warning signs of activity. Evacuation plans in case of jökulhlaup from an Eyjafjallajökull eruption were finalised during this period (Bird et al. 2012). While Eyjafjallajökull’s eruption was huge and disruptive, it pales in comparison to the poten… The initial stages of 20 March 2010 eruption were of very modest magnitude and despite comprehensive monitoring systems, it was first observed that evening by farmers who reported “a fire on top of the mountain” to local police (Bird et al. The survey incorporated 15 semi-structured interviews with officials and residents alongside a questionnaire disseminated to households living within the vicinity of the Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes. Residents living in close proximity are well aware of the potential hazards from a Katla eruption. Air quality in Iceland, measured against the most commonly used health limit, was exceeded by orders of magnitude in local farming communities and villages during and after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Thorsteinsson et al. Eyjafjallajökull, Katla and the surrounding districts. 2011, Bird and Gísladóttir 2012). Part of Springer Nature. It sits close to the fourth greatest, Mýrdalsjökull, which also conceals another notorious volcano, this one called Katla. Heiðarsson et al. These floods destroyed farmlands and caused some damage to roads and infrastructure but no lives were lost (Gislason et al. They get claustrophobic and become confused and many are not able to make logical decisions. Case study - eruption in a developed country: Eyjafjallajökull. These plans have, however, undergone revisions since 2002 to rectify this omission due to the realised threat evidenced by continuing magma intrusions in Eyjafjallajökull. The hazard and risk assessments, development of response plans and engagement of locals in these efforts in the years prior to the 2010 eruption are an excellent example of that approach. Icelandic Meteorological Office observes all Iceland's volcanoes and … Impacts and Responses of Icelandic Aviation to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Eruption Gudmundur Freyr Ulfarsson and Elizabeth A. Unger Transportation Research Record 2011 2214 : 1 , … The preparation of this paper has been supported by the Nordic Centre of Excellence for Resilience and Societal Security—NORDRESS, which is funded by the Nordic Societal Security Programme. Furthermore, there was some criticism regarding the fact that before the 2010 events, response plans were only in place for jökulhlaup risk while other volcanogenic hazards had not been addressed accordingly (Bird and Gísladóttir 2012). Here is the Times‘ graphic showing just how widespread the airport closures have been. Bull Volcanol 73:223–239, Wilson TM (2009) Vulnerability of pastoral farming systems to volcanic ashfall hazards. The institute undertakes core research in volcanic activity as well as the associated hazards and environmental impacts. It opened up a discussion about how science is used in risk management. 82, 2008 states that NCIP is responsible for assigning alert levels (Text box 1), in collaboration with the relevant Chief of Police, for all natural and man-made hazards (Ministry of the Interior 2008). You never know what will happen and it is good that people are together if something happens. Setting The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted on 14 April 2010. While local residents are, in general, aware of the risks and emergency response procedures associated with a volcanic eruption in southern Iceland (Bird et al. At its highest point Eyjafjallajökull rises to … This is done by increasing preparedness of the emergency- and security services in the area and by taking preventive measures, such as restrictions, closures, evacuations and relocation of inhabitants. The individual authorities’ approach, such as those concerning health of residents, is reprehensible. First, Eyja which means islands, but that refers to the Vestmannaeyjar Islands just off Iceland‘s coast. Tragically, two people lost their lives while trying to access a suitable viewing point from the north of Eyjafjallajökull. However, some survey respondents indicated that they did not receive the SMS or call to evacuate while others who did receive it chose to ignore it. Eyjafjallajökull Case Study (Management (IMO monitored and issued a…: Eyjafjallajökull Case Study, , While IES research includes monitoring via GPS measurements, INSAR, glacier surface surveying and seismic measurements, real-time monitoring remains the responsibility of IMO. This growth is expected to continue in the coming years. Ríkislögreglustjórinn and Háskólaútgáfan, Reykjavík, p 210, Guðmundsson MT, Elíasson J, Larsen G, Gylfason ÁG, Einarsson P, Jóhanesson T, Hákonardóttir KM, Torfason H (2005) Yfirlit um hættu vegna eldgosa og hlaupa frá vesturhluta Mýrdalsjökuls og Eyjafjallajökli. To the detriment of the overall aim of DCPEM, IMO and IES to provide ‘one voice’, Iceland’s president publicly stated: “you ain’t seen nothing yet” in relation to a Katla eruption (see http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/newsnight/8631343.stm). European volcanological supersite in Iceland: a monitoring system and network for the future. Residents were also frustrated with the media stating that the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions were “a show and nothing in comparison to what Katla can do”. Eyjafjallajökull, lying in south-west of Iceland, is a volcano covered by an ice cap. Seidl IA(1), Daly MP, Johnson AJ, Aitken P. Author information: (1)Townsville Health Service District, Townsville, QLD 4810, Australia. With unrest in Eyjafjallajökull in 2009 and 2010, regional hazard and response information meetings were held in March 2010 (Bird, Gísladóttir & Dominey-Howes 2009, 2011, Bird & Gísladóttir 2012). The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010. EOS Trans AGU 91:190–191, Gudmundsson MT, Thordarson T, Höskuldsson Á, Larsen G, Björnsson H, Prata FJ, Oddsson B, Magnússon E, Högnadóttir T, Petersen GN, Hayward CL, Stevenson JA, Jónsdóttir I (2012) Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. 2010), gas emissions, heavy sound blasts and lava flows reaching over 3 km down the slopes on the north side (Gudmundsson et al. Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull Volcano burst into life for the first time in 190 years on March 20, 2010. The narrative is based on multiple sources, including an analysis of community perspectives of the emergency response and their use and views of the various forms of communication platforms. A Response to the April 2010 Eyjafjallajokull Volcano Eruption 3 (ANSPs), regulators and government agencies are forced to gather what scientific advice they may find in response to an adverse event as it develops. Almannavarnir (2016b) Emergency response. The event is defined and a hazard assessment is conducted regularly. As Þorkelsson (2012) points out, IMO did not and still does not have a designated press office that can deal with a huge demand for crisis information yet they were faced with an enormous influx of requests, fielding calls from around 100 international reporters on just day two of the summit eruption. Hence, it is not surprising that the survey revealed the majority (50%) of respondents heard about the commencement of the eruption via a family member, friend or neighbour. Eyjafjallajökull consists of a volcano completely covered by an ice cap. A further 17% heard from DCPEM while 14% heard of the news over the radio. The catalogue is written in English, somewhat reducing its potential usefulness for local populations. during the 2010 eruptions. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Observing the Volcano World Respondents’ use of the IMO website before, during and after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, Respondents’ use of the DCPEM website before, during and after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, Respondents’ use of the IES website before, during and after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. Continuing for 24 days, this ‘tourist eruption’ produced spectacular fire fountains and lava flows. The first evacuation orders were disseminated via an automated phone alert system, supervised by the local Chief of Police (Gudmundsson et al. (2014) also highlights the importance of the science sector providing clear and consistent messaging that is backed up by all government and non-government stakeholders. 700. 2015). Other local news media, such as the ‘Fréttablaðið’ and ‘Morgunblaðið’ newspapers and the English newspaper ‘The Reykjavik Grapevine’ and magazine ‘Iceland Review’ also broadcasted news of the event via their traditional and online platforms. If material is not included in the chapter’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Eyjafjallajökull (also known as Eyjafjöll) is located west of Katla volcano. These points, identified as ‘survey’ data, are interspersed throughout the following sections. Initial volcanic risk management plans, developed from as early as 1973 for southern Iceland, did not include response to an Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Survey respondents were more positive about the coordination of the evacuations (see Fig. It has been an active volcano since many decades. The special response team has also been active during other volcanic crises such as the 2011 Grímsvötn and 2014–15 Bárðarbunga-Holuhraun eruptions. I am struggling to find any information on Google so any help is deeply appreciated. A branch of the Temporary Service Centre was later established in Vík in Mýrdal for the population east of the eruption since the main centre in Heimaland was too far for many residents to travel, especially in relation to the ongoing ash fall and resuspension. 2010). the major hazard from this eruption, reached 11,000m high. Population data was sourced from Ísólfur Gylfi Pálmason, the head of the Rangárþing eystra municipality, and Statistics Iceland (2016). 2011 Aug;35(3):294-6. doi: 10.1071/AH10941. BMJ Open 2, Donovan A, Oppenheimer C (2012) Governing the lithosphere: insights from Eyjafjallajökull concerning the role of scientists in supporting decision-making on active volcanoes. The impacted region was, and still is, an important agricultural region, with 15% of all cattle, 6% of all sheep, 17% of all horses and 12% of all dairy production in Iceland in 2010 (Farmers Association of Iceland 2010). Ríkislögreglustjórinn and Háskólaútgáfan, Reykjavík, pp 11–44, Harris AJL, Gurioli L, Hughes EE, Lagreulet S (2012) Impact of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud: a newspaper perspective. Here, the general public along with government officials and agencies were able to access timely data including status reports, satellite images and maps, GPS time series data, chemical composition analyses of rocks and ash, grain size distribution of ash, photos of the eruption, lahar reports and related academic publications. Integrating communication into the management process, Providing truthful, honest and transparent information, Being accessible and having a good relationship with the media, Understanding, informing and cooperating with the audience, Planning, preparing, documenting the crisis communication. But the evacuation for Vestur-Eyjafjöll was not OK. 1823. Master of Public Health Sciences, Centre of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland. Overall, the survey data suggests that residents’ more frequently turned to the various media platforms for information (Fig. Ash was tracked by many countries so they could decide what to do about air traffic in advance. Every permanent household exposed to volcanic hazards during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions was approached in these communities. This included 19 households from Vestur-Eyjafjöll, 26 from Austur-Eyjaföll, seven from Sólheimar and six from Álftaver (see Fig. managers face in developing appropriate response strate-gies acceptable to vulnerable communities. Increased tourism, however, ultimately leads to increases in the number of tourists exposed to risks associated with volcanic eruptions. Reykjavík, p 45, Guðmundsdóttir BN (2016) Best practices in Icelandic crisis communication during volcanic eruptions: development of a tentative framework. 2012). In addition to their advisory role with DCPEM, IMO is tasked with monitoring, forecasting and disseminating natural hazard warnings to aviation service providers and the public (Karlsdóttir et al. Not logged in Sigurðsson O, Sigurðsson G, Björnsson BB, Pagneux EP, Zóphóníasson S, Einarsson B, Þórarinsson Ó, Jóhannesson T (2011) Flood warning system and jökulhlaups—Eyjafjallajökull, Icelandic Meteorlogical Office. The Minister of the Interior is head of civil protection and emergency management in Iceland with the National Commissioner of Police (NCIP) responsible for all issues at the national level (Fig. Marcel Theroux takes a hike up Eyjafjallajökull, the volcano that erupted in 2010 causing airports across Europe to close as an ash cloud drifted towards the continent. Protect form responses. 3), stating that the planning was much improved from the 20 March eruption with better information. A bit “overdramatizing” if I use slang. Kenyan economy at risk as perishable goods must be transported through Spain to get to the UK instead of been flown as usual. Generally speaking, security compliance in a monolithic environment is easier to monitor and enforce when a small number of hands […] (2012) and Þorkelsson (2012). 5. This includes developing and implementing strategies to prevent and/or mitigate physical injury, impacts on public health and damage to the environment and property, in addition to providing emergency relief and assistance (Johannesdottir 2016). People forced to wear goggles and masks because of the ash, 1. 2015). Location : The eruption began on 20th March 2010 and ended 7 months later in October 2010. This is one of many key lessons that have been documented and investigated through the FUTUREVOLC project. Eyjafjallajökull Case Study 2. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010 had a huge impact on the aviation industry in Europe (Donovan & Oppenheimer, 2010). In light of increased seismic rates in and around Eyjafjallajökull at the start of 2010 (Gudmundsson et al. Responses to Eyjafjallajökull? Although volcanic risk awareness among tourists appeared heightened during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, it did not result in them seeking more information on safety strategies (Lund et al. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Media people were too aggressive to the residents, soon after the eruption started. They described it as such that everything here was covered in ash, and the situation in the area disastrous, but it was absolutely not so. Almannavarnir (2016a) Civil protection in Iceland. In our area the planning for the evacuation and the evacuation centre was not good, it should have been planned better. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The aim was to gather all the information electronically in an online catalogue, now available at (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is/), to improve public and official understanding of the current state of Iceland’s volcanoes. Faculty of Earth Sciences, Masters Thesis in Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources Management, Earth Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, ISBN 978-9979-9914-0-3, Lund KA, Benediktsson K, Mustonen TA (2010) The Eyjafjallajökull eruption and tourism: report from a survey in 2010. This group played an active role in crisis communication with the responsibility of disseminating information to tourists stranded in Iceland and offering alternative activities to them while they were waiting for flights out of the country. Thus, accurate, detailed and timely crisis communication was imperative in the lead up to and during the ongoing eruption, not only in relation to jökulhlaup risk but also covering the broad spectrum of impacts and well into the recovery phase. 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