Macías, State Univ of New York, Buffalo, NY. The high altitude of the cloud made direct sampling difficult and none has been possible in the densest portion above 25 km. Sigurdsson H, Carey S N, Espindola J M, 1984. Volume and composition of tephra. It's history, eruptions, latest news, pictures + some facts and info about. Unusual sunrises and sunsets have been reported from E Texas since 24 April. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided. Figure 8 shows the lake in 2005, the smallest volume at this crater lake yet observed. This is a view of the El Chichon caldera, formed during the very explosive eruptions of late March and early April of 1982. El Chichón is a small, but powerful trachyandesitic tuff cone and lava dome complex that occupies an isolated part of the Chiapas region in SE México far from other Holocene volcanoes. Several layers were detected, with strongest backscattering at an altitude of 25.7 km. Macías and J.-C. Komorowski described the current activity and their interpretations of it during an informal conference on 19 May with residents of Chapultenango (11 km ESE of the crater), local authorities, and a group of elementary school teachers. There is a shallow acidic lake in the caldera, fed entirely by ground water. Recently exhumed fault planes veneered by secondary mineralization in the crater wall were also quite common. The lake had receded substantially between the late January visit and observations from the crater rim 21 April but lake level was not appreciably lower in October. Volcanoes proposed as the source include Rabaul (Papua New Guinea; Stothers and Rampino, 1983), El Chichón (Mexico; Gill, 2000; Nooren et al., 2009), and Ilopango (El Salvador; Oppenheimer, 2011), although Rabaul has recently been discarded (McKee et al., 2015). A team of scientists descended into the crater during the week of 16 October. Information Contacts: H. Sigurdsson, Univ. Lidar operated by NASA at Hampton, Virginia (37.1°N, 76.3°W), began to detect layers at higher altitudes in early June. Strong, NOAA. Blackbody temperatures of the tops of dense eruption columns are determined from GOES East geostationary weather satellite digital data, and are compared to temperature/altitude profiles from radiosondes launched from Veracruz, México (19.15°N, 96.12°W) at 0600 and 1800 daily. Almost all of the fumaroles showed a steady, audible release of overpressured gas, except for one just N of the crater lake, where frequent noise changes showed that output was distinctly discontinuous. Information Contacts: F. Medina, UNAM, México; J. Luhr, Univ. Geology. Vapor was emitted from 6-8 vents distributed around the shore and churning of the lake water indicated that gases were also emerging from sources beneath its surface. Closer to the summit, fields that had been completely buried contained tufts of grass about 1/3 m high. ; Romeo León Vidal, CFE, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México. May activity and flood. Officials reported that as many as 100 persons may have been killed by the eruption and associated seismic activity. Explosive activity resumed about 2000. Bull Volcanol, 59: 436-449. Determinations from satellite and radiosonde data of initial cloud top altitudes (rows with temperature and tropopause data) and later downwind drift of ejecta (rows with drift data) from the four largest explosions of El Chichón, March-April 1982. Servando de la Cruz visited the volcano and found no evidence that an eruption had occurred. J. Volcanol. Stratospheric cloud. Information Contacts: J. Res., 175: 444-458. El Chichón is … Explosive volcanic activity during the last 3,500 years at El Chichon volcano, Mexico. Prior to 1982, this relatively unknown volcano was heavily forested and of no greater height than adjacent nonvolcanic peaks. Extreme heat made it impossible to approach the village of Francisco León, 5 km SW of the summit. Livingston, W., and Lockwood, G.W., 1983, Volcanic ash over Arizona in the spring of 1982: Astronomical Observations: Science, v. 220, p. 300-302. The CO2 gas fluxes from the crater lake's surface and floor were recently sampled using a floating accumulation chamber to measure the output. However, with NASA's SAGE satellite no longer functional, determination of the extent of the cloud at any given time is very difficult. ; W. Zoller, Univ. They had no reason to rush because El Chichón, the volcano in the region, had been dormant for 6 centuries. From Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, extinction of two times normal at 3,900 was measured in mid-May. Seismic activity and landsliding were at a very low level. People living near the volcano reported an eruption in late March or early April that produced light ashfall near the volcano, and was accompanied by loud, thunder-like noises. Information Contacts: S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM; J. Romeo León Vidal, Sismología del Sureste C. F. E., Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, México. ; B. Mendonça, NOAA/ERL; J. Rosen, Univ. Tremor, gas fluxes, inferences, and ongoing monitoring.The authors of this report inferred that the low-frequency tremor and rumbling beneath the crater floor stemmed from fluid migrations inside the boiling aquifer, sometimes causing small intra-aquifer phreatic explosions. Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. El Chichón volcano in southern Mexico forms a broad symmetrical cone with a diameter of 10 km at itsbase and is capped by a 600 m wide crater containing a 80 m high andesitic lava dome. At times, vapor formed only within about 1 m above this vent, suggesting that the gas is initially superheated. At that time, an impulsive shake, accompanied by an explosion-like sound, was reported by the geologists at the crater rim. It is a small, but powerful andesitic tuff cone and lava dome complex that occupies an isolated part of the Chiapas region far from other Holocene volcanoes. Res., 20: 117-132. Duffield, Wendell A., 2001, At least Noah had some warning: Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 82, p.305, 309. Figure 7 depicts a sequence of what resemble stair steps developed on the pyroclastic deposits. No large explosions have occurred at El Chichón since 4 April. Geotherm. Yuri Taran from the Institute of Geophysics, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), has been studying El Chichón volcano and its hydrothermal activity for almost 10 years (see Capaccioni and others, 2004). From Tucson, Arizona, Aden and Marjorie Meinel observed a primary scattering layer at 13.2 km and a weaker layer at 20 km around sunset on 30 April. The nearest neighboring Holocene volcanoes are 275 km and 200 km to the southeast and northwest, respectively. All of the volcano's major drainages contained pyroclastic flow deposits, which were more than 15 m thick in some of the deeper valleys. The authors considered the perturbations too small to cause the distant landslide. According to co-author Dmitri Rouwet, the rumbling beneath the crater often triggers small intracrater avalanches. The event, the subject of a report in the newspaper La Jornada, was reported to have buried 40-60 dwellings and killed at least 10, but more likely 200-300 residents. The ratio of NO (measured by a chemoluminescent technique) to total sulfur gases (analyzed by flame photometry) was an order of magnitude higher in the El Chichón plume than at Arenal, Poás, Colima, and Mt. Despite its proximity to these large capital cities the volcano is situated in a region with very difficult access. Bull Volcanol, 58: 459-471. Other Mexican highlights are Popocatépetl and El Chichón. Before the 1982 eruption, the volcano was heavily forested, with a shallow crater, 1,900 X 900 m, elongate NNW-SSE. The eruptions of March and April in 1982 affected at least 51 communities located in the surroundings of the volcano and caused the death of about 2000 people. We think that the ashfall most likely was dust produced during large rockfalls from the crater walls, and the noise was the sound of the rockfalls. The crater as a whole typically had H2S concentrations of 2-6 ppm, which required special precautions for the scientists. The pumice flow deposit appeared to have been emplaced as two separate events in rapid succession. El Chichón volcano eruptions. Shortly afterward, an ash flow flattened trees in the valley surrounding the pumice flow deposit and left a relatively thin layer of ash that had a temperature of 94°C at 10 cm depth 3 days later. Information Contacts: S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM. Relict portions of altered brecciated trachyandesite described by Rose and others (1984) as remnants of the pre-1982 dome and shown on the map of Casadevall and others (1984) as "altered areas" are still actively steaming. There was no change in the appearance of the crater, crater lake, or outer flanks, and no sign of any recent tephra deposits. Stratospheric cloud continues N dispersal. Weather satellite images 3-4 April showed a series of plume-like features originating from the vicinity of El Chichón. Slight variations in lake water temperature and migration of thermal fields on the crater floor were noticed during an April 1998 visit. Fumarolic activity was observed throughout the crater but was much more extensive and vigorous in its NNE sector (steaming ground zone of Casadevall and others, 1984). [Carey and Sigurdsson (1986) calculate average column altitudes of 20, 24, and 22 km respectively for the 29 March and the two 4 April explosions.]. The eruption caused widespread devastation. To help the local government to dismiss (or confirm) those rumors, a special trip was made to deploy three portable seismic stations around the volcano, and to obtain more samples of the crater-lake water. The temperature of the crater lake had decreased to 42°C from 52-58°C during the previous descent in late January. The salinity was greater when the lake had higher volume. In September 2001 he reported that visible fumarolic activity in the crater had dropped during the previous six months and had changed to a new area of the crater. Haze was widespread over central México, reducing visibility to about 8 km in México City ( ~ 650 km WNW of the volcano) and to only about 3 km in Tampico (~ 750 km NW of the volcano). Friend, Drexel Univ. The 22° angular distance from the sun indicated a particle size of 0.7-0.9 µm. Erosion had started to form deeply incised gullies in the crater walls, producing small rockfalls around the crater. Boron concentrations, at 66 mg/L, were also the highest recorded values since January 1983. In March 2007 (figure 9) the lake contained the largest volume yet observed (~ 6 x 105 m3). Stratospheric cloud. Inspection of a satellite image returned late 11 April showed a moderately dense cloud extending from México to just W of Hawaii, spreading from roughly 300 km wide near the Mexican coast to nearly 850 km near its distal end. of California, Berkeley; M. Matson, D. Haller, C. Kadin, NOAA/NESS; B. Mendonça, NOAA/ERL; K. Coulson, MLO, HI; M. Hirono, Kyushu Univ. of Arizona; B. Skiff, Lowell Observatory; M. Helfert, NOAA, Houston TX; H. Lamb, Univ. The El Chichon volcano is located in Mexico near a state named Chiapas. At Pichucalco, ~20 km NE of the summit, 15 cm of ash was reported, and 5 cm of ash fell at Villahermosa (population 100,000), 70 km NE of the volcano. Changes in hydrothermal activity noticed in April. During field work at El Chichón between December 1980 and February 1981, more than 1 year before the eruption, Rene Canul heard loud noises and felt small earthquakes near the central dome, and could also feel some events while on the flanks of the volcano. Less than a week after geologists left the volcano major additional shrinkage of the lake was reported, and as of early May the lake occupied less than half the area it had covered 24 April. Some residents had returned to Nicapa and cattle were grazing in the area. J. Volcanol. The eruptions created a new 1-km-wide, 300-m-deep crater that now contains an acidic crater lake. 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